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Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)

Art. I-1

The legal framework provides for definitions (of key terms) identical in wording or effect as those set out in Article I.

Art. II-1

The legal framework allows for the conservation of migratory species and their habitats, especially those species for which conservation status is unfavourable.

Art. II-2

The legal framework allows for the adoption of measures to avoid any migratory species becoming endangered.

Art. II-3

The legal framework allows for:
a) promotion and support of research on migratory species; and
b) immediate protection for migratory species included in Appendix I of the CMS.

Art. III-4

With respect to migratory species listed in Appendix I of the CMS, the legal framework makes it obligatory:
a) to conserve and, where appropriate, restore habitats of those species which are important in protecting the species from danger of extinction;
b) to prevent, remove, compensate for or minimize the adverse effects of activities or obstacles that seriously impede or prevent the migration of the species; and
c) to prevent, reduce or control factors that endanger the species, including controlling the introduction of, or controlling or eliminating, already introduced exotic species.

Art. III-5

The legal framework prohibits the taking (including hunting and capturing) of the animals listed in Appendix I of the CMS, with possible exceptions to this prohibition only:
a) for scientific purposes;
b) to enhance the propagation or survival of the affected species;
c) to accommodate the needs of traditional subsistence users of such species; or
d) if extraordinary circumstances so require.
Provided that such exceptions are precise as to content and limited in space and time, and that the taking does not operate to the detriment of the species.

Art. IV-3

The legal framework encourages the conclusion of international agreements for the conservation and management of the migratory species listed in Appendix II of the CMS, with priority for species with an unfavourable conservation status (as opposed to species whose conservation status would benefit significantly from international cooperation, which are also listed in Appendix II).